Diesel hammers are divided into guide rod type and cylinder type according to their structure. The diesel hammer with guide rod is pressed on the pile cap with plunger as hammer seat, and moves up and down along two guide rods with air cylinder as hammer head. When piling, firstly lift the pile into the gantry of the pile frame, then place the diesel hammer on the top of the pile frame, lower the hook to lift the oil cylinder, release the hook to let the cylinder fall into the plunger, compress the closed air in the cylinder, and the oil cylinder continues to fall until the pressure pin outside the oil cylinder pushes the rocker of the fuel pump on the hammer seat, and the fuel pump sprays oil mist into the cylinder. When the oil mist meets the high temperature gas above the ignition point, it will explode immediately, and the explosive force will impact downward to make the pile sink and rise. The cylindrical diesel hammer takes the cylinder as the hammer seat, and is directly guided by the extended inner wall of the cylinder, thus eliminating two guide rods. The plunger is a hammer head, which can move up and down in the cylinder. During piling, the manufacturer of diesel pile hammer presses the pile cap under the pile top hammer seat on the pile, lifts the plunger with hook, and then unhooks and impacts downward to compress the air in the cylinder. And fuel injection, explosion, impact, ventilation, etc.
Production process: the work of the diesel hammer is started by compressing and burning diesel oil, so it is necessary to ensure that the closed gas in the cylinder reaches a certain compression ratio. Sometimes when piling on soft soil layer, the reaction force is too small and the compression amount is not enough to ignite and detonate. It is necessary to lift the hammer head several times with a hook, and then the impact force can be started. The fuel injection pump, oil tank, cooling water tank and pile cap are installed on the hammer seat of diesel hammer. The movable clearance between plunger and cylinder body is sealed by elastic piston ring.
A pile driving machine that uses the impact force to drive the pile into the stratum. It is composed of pile hammer, pile frame and auxiliary equipment. The pile hammer is attached between two parallel vertical guide rods (commonly known as the gantry) in front of the pile frame and is lifted with a hook. The pile frame is a steel structure tower, with a winch at the back to lift the pile and pile hammer. In front of the pile frame, there is a guide frame composed of two guide rods to control the piling direction and make the pile penetrate into the stratum accurately according to the design direction. The tower and guide frame can be deflected together to drive inclined piles. The guide frame can also be extended down the tower to drive underwater piles along the embankment or wharf. The pile frame can be rotated and moved. The basic technical parameters of pile driver are impact weight, impact kinetic energy and impact frequency. Pile hammer can be divided into drop hammer, steam hammer, diesel hammer, hydraulic hammer, etc.
The pile hammer of drop hammer pile driver is a steel heavy block, which is lifted by winch with hook, and then falls freely along the guide frame after decoupling. The pile hammer of steam hammer pile driver is composed of hammer head and hammer seat, which is powered by steam or compressed air. There are two kinds of single acting steam hammer and double acting steam hammer. The single acting steam hammer uses the plunger or cylinder as the hammer head. The steam drives the hammer head to rise, and then makes it descend and accumulate along the guide rod of the hammer seat. Double acting steam hammers generally use weighted plunger as hammer head and cylinder as hammer seat. The steam drives the hammer head to rise, then drives the hammer head to impact and accumulate downward. High reciprocating speed and high frequency make the pile vibrate when penetrating into the stratum, which can reduce the friction resistance and achieve good piling effect. The two-way unequal force differential steam hammer has the advantages of light weight, relatively increased effective impact weight and better performance. The reversing of steam hammer inlet and exhaust rotary valve can be manually controlled or automatically controlled by lifting the hammer head with a flange control rod installed on one side of the hammer head. Both methods can adjust the impact stroke of steam hammer.
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