Diesel hammers are divided into guide rod type and cylinder type according to their structural forms. The piston is used as the hammer seat to press on the pile cap, and the cylinder is used as the hammer head to rise and fall along the two guide rods. During pile driving, firstly lift the pile to the gantry of pile frame in place, then put the diesel hammer on the pile top, lower the hook to lift the cylinder, and then disconnect the hook to let the cylinder fall into the plunger, compress the air enclosed in the cylinder, and the cylinder continues to fall, until the pressure pin outside the cylinder pushes the rocker of the fuel pump on the hammer seat, the fuel pump will spray oil mist into the cylinder, and the oil mist will meet the above ignition point When the high temperature gas is ignited and exploded immediately, the explosive force will impact downward to make the pile sink, and push upward to make the cylinder rise again. When the cylinder falls down again along the guide rod, the second impact cycle will be started. The cylinder type diesel hammer takes the cylinder as the hammer seat, and directly uses the lengthened inner wall of the cylinder to guide, omitting two guide rods. The plunger is the hammer head and can move up and down in the cylinder. During piling, the manufacturer of diesel pile driver presses the pile cap under the hammer seat onto the pile top, lifts the plunger with hook, and then releases the hook to impact downward to compress the air enclosed in the cylinder. And fuel injection, explosion, impact, ventilation and other work
Working process. The work of the diesel hammer is started by burning diesel oil. Therefore, it is necessary to ensure that the closed gas in the cylinder reaches a certain compression ratio. Sometimes, when piling on soft soil layer, the reaction force is too small and the compression amount is not enough to ignite and detonate. Therefore, it is necessary to lift the hammer head with a hook for several times to release the impact before starting. The hammer seat of diesel hammer is attached with fuel injection pump, oil tank, cooling water tank and pile cap. The movable clearance between plunger and cylinder is sealed by elastic piston ring.
A piling machine that uses the impact force to drive the pile into the stratum. It is composed of pile hammer, pile frame and auxiliary equipment. The pile hammer is attached between two parallel vertical guide rods (commonly known as the gantry) in the front of the pile frame and is lifted by lifting hook. The pile frame is a steel structure tower, with a winch at the rear to lift the pile and pile hammer. In front of the pile frame, there is a guide frame composed of two guide rods to control the piling direction and make the pile penetrate into the stratum accurately according to the design direction. The tower and guide frame can be inclined together to drive inclined piles. The guide frame can also be extended downward along the tower to drive underwater piles along the bank or wharf. The pile frame can rotate and move. The basic technical parameters of pile driver are the weight of impact part, impact kinetic energy and impact frequency. Pile hammers can be divided into drop hammer, steam hammer, diesel hammer, hydraulic hammer, etc.
The pile hammer of drop hammer pile driver is a steel heavy block, which is lifted by the winch with a hook, and falls freely along the guide frame after decoupling. The pile hammer of a pile driving machine is composed of a hammer head and a hammer seat. It is powered by steam or compressed air. There are two types of single acting steam hammer and double acting steam hammer. The single acting steam hammer takes the plunger or cylinder as the hammer head. The steam drives the hammer head to rise, and then it is allowed to fall along the guide rod of the hammer seat to pile. The double acting steam hammer usually uses the weighted plunger as the hammer head and the cylinder as the hammer seat. The steam drives the hammer head to rise, and then drives the hammer head to impact the pile driving downward. The up and down reciprocating speed is fast and the frequency is high, so that the vibration occurs when the pile penetrates into the stratum, which can reduce the friction resistance and achieve good pile driving effect. The weight of the hammer seat is light, the effective impact weight can be relatively increased and the performance is better. The reversing of the inlet and exhaust rotary valve of the steam hammer can be controlled manually or automatically by the flange control lever installed on the side of the hammer head and lifting with the hammer head. The impact stroke of the steam hammer can be adjusted in both ways.
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